Because of its strong oxidizing properties, chlorine is an excellent biocide used to treat potable waters, municipal wastes, and swimming pools. When used to treat potable water, chlorine helps alleviate the adverse effects of iron, manganese, ammonia, and sulfide. The DPD Method: In the USEPA-approved DPD methodology, free chlorine reacts with DPD to form a pink product. When ammonia or amines are present, some of the chlorine may exist as combined chlorine. Combined chlorine will not interfere with the free chlorine results, provided the readings are taken at one minute. To determine...Catalog No.: W2120-1A | W2120-6A | W2120-7 | | W2460-7A | W2460-8A | W2460-12
Chloride is the most common inorganic anion found in water and wastewater. The Maximum Secondary Contaminant Level for drinking water for chloride is 250 mg/L. Natural sources of salt are the ocean and various salt deposits above and below ground. Chloride is very corrosive to most metals in systems with elevated pressures and temperatures such as boilers and oil-drilling equipment.
CHEMetrics employs a mercuric nitrate titrant in acid solution with diphenylcarbazone as the end point indicator. Results are expressed as ppm (mg/L) Cl.
These kits contain mercury....Catalog No.: | W2080-2 | W2080-3 | W2080-4 | W2080-5 | W2080-8
Dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) is naturally present as a result of animal respiration, the decay of organic matter, and the decomposition of certain minerals. It is the major source of acidity in unpolluted water samples. Surface waters typically contain less than 10 ppm (mg/L) dissolved CO2, while ground waters, particularly if deep, may contain several hundred ppm (mg/L). CHEMetrics' carbon dioxide test kits employ a sodium hydroxide titrant and phenolphthalein indicator. The kits contain a neutralizer solution to correct for sulfide interference. Results are...Catalog No.: W2060-1 | W2060-2 | W2060-3
Bromine, a less volatile compound than chlorine, is used as a sanitizing agent in drinking water systems, swimming pools, and spas. The DDPD Reagent, a methyl-substituted form of DPD is employed. Potassium iodide is added to the sample before analysis. Bromine reacts with the iodide to liberate iodine. The iodine reacts with the DDPD reagent to form a purple color. Results are expressed in ppm (mg/L) bromine as Br2.Catalog No.: W2045-1 | W2045-3 |
Ammonia Stabilizer Solution
Catalog No.: A-1500
Qty. per pack: six 10 mL bottles
The accessory pack supplies enough solution to perform at least 200 tests.
(Sample Photo Displayed. Individual items may differ from the image shown.)
Catalog No.: W2480-1
The test kits employing the well-established Nessler reagent to determine ammonia concentrations are applicable to drinking water, clean surface water, good quality nitrified wastewater effluent, and seawater. In some waters, calcium and magnesium concentrations can cause cloudiness of the reagent. Adding a few drops of stabilizer solution (Rochelle Salt) will prevent this cloudiness. References recommend distilling samples prior to analysis. Results are expressed as ppm (mg/L) ammonia-nitrogen, NH3-N. Shelf life: although the Nessler reagent is stable, its high alkali content attacks the...Catalog No.: W2020-1A | W2020-3 | W2020-3A | W2020-4 | W2020-5 | W2020-6
CHEMetrics' alkalinity (total) test kits determine total or M alkalinity using a hydrochloric acid titrant and a bromocresol green/methyl red indicator. The end point of the titration occurs at pH 4.5. Results are expressed as ppm (mg/L) CaCO3. CHEMetrics hydrate alkalinity test kits use a hydrochloric acid titrant with a phenolphthalein indicator. The end point of the titration occurs at pH 8.3. Barium chloride is added to the sample to prevent interference from carbonate and bicarbonate alkalinity. Results are expressed as ppm (mg/L) NaOH...Catalog No.: W2000-1 | W2000-2 | W2000-3 | W2000-4
The determination of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) is widely used in municipal and industrial laboratories to measure the overall level of organic contamination in wastewater. The contamination level is determined by measuring the equivalent amount of oxygen required to oxidize organic matter in the sample.
CHEMetrics offers two dichromate reactor digestion methods for fast, easy,...Catalog No.: W1704-2 | W1704-4 | W1704-6 | W1704-8 | W1704-10 | W1704-12
Low-level ammonia nitrogen may be naturally present in water as a result of the biological decay of plant and animal matter. Higher concentrations in surface waters can indicate contamination from waste treatment facilities, raw sewage, industrial effluents (particularly from petroleum refineries), or fertilizer runoff. Excessive ammonia concentrations are toxic to aquatic life.
The Direct Nesslerization Method
The test kits employing the well-established Nessler reagent* to determine ammonia concentrations are applicable to drinking water, clean...Catalog No.: W1702-3 | W1702-5 |
Nitrite, an intermediate in the nitrogen cycle, is formed during the decomposition of organic matter but readily oxidizes to form nitrate. These processes occur in wastewater treatment plants, water distribution systems, and natural waters. Nitrites are useful as corrosion inhibitors, preservatives, pigments, and in manufacturing many organic preservative chemicals. A Maximum Contaminant Level of 1 mg/L has been established by the USEPA for nitrite-nitrogen in drinking water.
...Catalog No.: W2300-5 | W2300-6 | W2460-62 | W2460-63 | W2460-64 | W2460-64D
The level of dissolved oxygen in natural waters is often a direct indication of quality, since aquatic plants produce oxygen, while microorganisms generally consume it as they feed on pollutants. At low temperatures the solubility of oxygen is increased; during summer, saturation levels can be as low as 4 ppm. Dissolved oxygen (D.O.) is essential for the support of fish and other aquatic life and aids in the natural decomposition of organic matter. Waste treatment plants that employ aerobic...Catalog No.: W2340-1 | W2340-5 | W2340-5A | W2340-6 | W2340-7 | W2340-9 | W2460-61 | W2460-65
Phenol (hydroxybenzene) is the simplest of a group of similar organic chemicals, which includes cresols, xylenols, and catechols. Phenol itself is a common ingredient of disinfectants. In drinking water, low-level phenolic concentrations impart a foul taste and odor, especially upon chlorination. High phenol concentrations can indicate contamination from industrial effluents or waste discharge.
...Catalog No.: W2360-2 | W2360-2B | W2360-3 | W2360-4 | W2360-5 | W2460-61 | W2460-63 | W2460-64D | W2460-65
Phosphorus occurs naturally in rock formations in the earth's crust, usually as phosphate. High phosphate concentrations in surface waters may indicate fertilizer runoff, domestic waste discharge, or the presence of industrial effluents or detergents. Although phosphates from these sources are usually poly-phosphates or organically bound, all will degrade to ortho or reactive phosphates with time. ...Catalog No.: W2380-2 | W2380-3 | W2380-4 | W2380-5 | W2380-5D | W2380-7 | W2380-8 | W2460-81 | W2460-82 | W2460-83 | W2460-84 | W2460-84D | W2460-86 | W2480-7
Sulfides are naturally present in ground waters as a result of leaching from sulfur-containing mineral deposits. Surface waters do not usually contain high sulfide concentrations. Sulfides result from the decomposition of organic matter, from bacterial sulfate reduction under anaerobic conditions and from various chemical processes.
The Methylene Blue Method:
CHEMetrics test kits measure total acid soluble sulfides and employ the methylene blue methodology. Sulfides react with dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine in the presence of ferric chloride to produce...Catalog No.: W2400-2 | W2400-2A | W2400-3 | W2400-4 | W2400-5 | W2480-7 | W2460-80A | W2460-81 | W2460-82 | W2460-83 | W2460-84
Sulfite is not usually present in surface waters. If sulfite is discharged in effluents or from domestic wastewaters, it readily oxidizes to form sulfate. Sodium sulfite is the most common form of sulfite and is an excellent reducing agent with applications as an oxygen scavenger. Sulfite concentrations in boiler and process waters must be monitored routinely to avoid overtreatment. Waste treatment plants that use sulfur dioxide to remove excess...Catalog No.: W2420-1 | W2420-1A | W2420-2 | W2420-3
Molybdate is used throughout the industrial water treatment and power generation industries as a corrosion inhibitor in both open- and closed-loop cooling water systems. In solution, molybdate anions complex with oxidized iron to form a protective film of molybdate and ferric-oxide. Molybdate is considered an effective, environmentally acceptable alternative to chromate treatment. Unlike many other transition elements, molybdenum exhibits low or even negligible toxicity.
...Catalog No.: W2265-1 | W2265-2 | W2265-3 | W2460-55D | W2460-55E
Surface and ground waters rarely contain more than 1 mg/L of soluble or suspended manganese. Manganese can act as an oxidizing or a reducing agent depending on its valence state. Manganese is also used in the manufacture of batteries and as an alloying metal in the manufacture of steel and aluminum. The National Secondary Drinking Water Standard for manganese is 0.05 mg/L, as higher concentrations will impart a foul taste to water and discolor laundry and porcelain surfaces.
The Periodate Method:
CHEMetrics' tests employ the periodate chemistry that...Catalog No.: W2260-1 | W2460-55 | W2260-5 | W2460-55A | W2480-5
Hexavalent chromium salts are used in numerous industrial processes. They are also used extensively as corrosion inhibitors in open and closed cooling water systems.
The Diphenylcarbazide Method:
With the chromate test method, hexavalent chromium reacts with diphenylcarbazide under acid conditions to form a red-violet color. Results are expressed as ppm (mg/L) CrO4.
(Sample Photo Displayed. Individual items may differ from the image shown.)
Catalog No.: W2130-1 | W2460-18E | W2460-18F
Formaldehyde, a toxic substance, is used in the following applications: metal plating baths, textile treatments, biological specimen preservatives, and disinfectants of medical equipment. Commercial formaldehyde gas is readily soluble in water.
The Purpald Method:
Purpald® is subject to fewer interferences than Schiff's reagent or chromotropic acid procedures. A purple-colored complex is formed when Purpald in alkaline solution reacts with formaldehyde. Results are expressed as ppm (mg/L) CH2O. Shelf-life of the Purpald...Catalog No.: W2182-1 | W2182-1AS | W2182-2 | W2182-3 | W2182-4 | W2182-5 | W2460-27A | W2460-27B | W2460-18G | W2460-18H | W2460-18J
Ethylene glycol and propylene glycol are the primary ingredients in commercially-available antifreezes. They are used with various corrosion inhibitors to protect metal surfaces in cooling water systems. CHEMetrics glycol kits are used to monitor potable waters for glycol contamination originating from glycol in cooling systems. They are also used to detect glycol in storm water effluent and to monitor glycol recycling operations.
The Purpald-Periodate Method:
In the colorimetric chemistry, periodic acid oxidizes ethylene glycol and/or propylene glycol...Catalog No.: W2195-1 | W2195-1AS | W2460-32H